Sexual Coercion: Definition and Examples

By: Edwin Maina

Sexual Coercion: Definition, Examples, and How to Remain in Control

“Sexual coercion is the rape no one wants to recognize.” – René Brooks, Black Girl, Lost Keys

In a world where #MeToo has become a rallying cry for survivors of sexual assault, it’s demoralizing to realize that sexual coercion is alarmingly common. 

Maybe you’ve found yourself in a situation where a subtle “no” wasn’t enough. Or perhaps you’re looking for answers to help your teen navigate the labyrinthine world of sex. 

The line between flirty persuasion and coercion can be blurrier than your vision after a night of tequila shots. That’s why we’re here — to help you spot the red flags. We’ll break down what sexual coercion looks like, how to spot it, and most importantly, how to stay in control of the situation.

Key Takeaways

  • Sexual coercion is unwanted sexual pressure. It is a crime.
  • Coercion can happen anywhere, even with people you know and trust. 
  • Coercion can be subtle. Guilt trips, emotional manipulation, or pressuring you to “prove” something are all forms of coercion.
  • Consent is key and should always be a clear and enthusiastic “YES!” 
  • Sexual coercion is never your fault. There are resources and support available to help you heal and move forward.

What Is Sexual Coercion?

Coercion is that pushy salesperson who won’t take no for an answer — except instead of getting stuck with a timeshare, your body is at stake. It’s when someone uses nonphysical pressure, manipulation, or threats to get you into sexual activity when you don’t want to get physical, and according to the CDC, it’s a type of sexual assault.[1]

This unwanted sexual contact can range from emotional manipulation (“If you loved me, you’d do it.”) to overt threats of harm or consequences (“If I don’t get sex from you I’ll get it somewhere else”). 

Contrary to popular opinion, sexual assault isn’t solely perpetrated by violent strangers. Long-term partners or even someone you’re just hooking up with can try to coerce you.  

According to authors Conway et al., who published findings in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, it frequently occurs within relationships or social circles where trust and familiarity can be exploited, and one of the ways this happens is through sexual coercion.[2]

According to the National Institute of Health, up to 59% of women experience coercion in romantic relationships.[3]

Up to 59% of women experience sexual coercion in romantic relationships.

It’s not nearly as uncommon as you might think to feel pressured and coerced into sexual contact when you don’t actually want to have sex.

Examples of Sexual Coercion

Recognizing sexually coercive behavior can be challenging, especially when it comes from someone you know and trust. Here are some common examples to help you identify and resist these manipulative tactics.

Persistent pestering or wearing someone down

Persistent pestering or wearing someone down is a common sexually coercive tactic in which the perpetrator repeatedly pressures or nags you into doing something you don’t want to do. 

Maybe they keep asking for a kiss even after you politely decline, or they pressure you to go back to their place after you express wanting to go home. 

In the bedroom, it looks like this: “Come on, please?” or “Just this once?” or “Sex is the way to show that you love me” on repeat until you’re too exhausted to keep saying no.

This relentless insistence is supposed to make you feel exhausted, guilty, or obligated to comply just to end the harassment. While it might feel subtle, research shows that most men who use physical coercive tactics also engage in verbal coercive tactics. 

In fact, according to research performed at the University of Windsor, “the use of verbally coercive tactics is more common than using incapacitation or forceful tactics to acquire sex from non-consenting women.”[4] 

So, before things get physical, it’s important to recognize that verbal and emotional pestering is a form of coercion and a violation of consent. Don’t be afraid to shut it down if someone’s not respecting your boundaries.

Emotional manipulation

So you’re snuggled up all warm and fuzzy when your partner suggests some intimacy. 

But you’re not feeling it. 

So they say “Come on, I had a hard day. It’s the only thing that could make it better.”

It’s as manipulative as a politician before election day and about as ethical as insider trading. 

Feeling loved and supported is a natural human desire, and some people use that to their advantage. But healthy relationships are built on trust and respect, not pressure and manipulation. Someone who truly cares about you will want you to feel comfortable and safe, not obligated. 

Also, by using such manipulative tactics, says an article published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, they spare themselves some of the repercussions of overt intimate partner rape and prevent your leaving the relationship.[5]

Don’t be fooled.

Real love doesn’t come with sexual strings attached.

Anyone trying to cash in your emotional check for sexual currency isn’t worth your time or your body.

Guilt-tripping

Guilt-tripping involves making the victim feel indebted or obligated to reciprocate sexually because of what the other person has done for them. 

For instance, you’re on a casual date, dinner was amazing, the conversation flowed, and you’re having a good time . . . but then things get weird. 

They suggest going back to their place and you decline. They’ll try to seem charming about it, “Aw, and I took you out to dinner first and everything.” 

Or maybe you’re in a relationship and they pull the classic, “But I did [insert bare minimum decent human behavior] for you!” 

It’s a classic from the coercive playbook. They lay on the guilt thick, tallying up every dime they’ve ever spent on you, as if racking up a bar tab entitles them to your body.

The problem with this tactic is that it makes you feel like you’re in the wrong for not complying. It’s like they’re using their generosity as a weapon, making you feel guilty or indebted to them. 

Consent is not something that can be bought or coerced — it must be freely and enthusiastically given.

Your financial obligations begin and end with splitting the check (or Venmo-ing them your half). Even if they do pick up the whole tab, letting someone spend money on you doesn’t put your consent up for purchase.

Letting someone spend money on you doesn’t put your consent up for purchase.

You’re not a prostitute, and they’re not your pimp. If they start guilt-tripping about money, resources, or time spent in hopes of getting laid, it’s time to bounce.

Not respecting sexual boundaries 

Sexual boundaries are your comfort zones when it comes to intimacy. Not respecting boundaries is a stepping stone to coercion. 

This behavior involves ignoring or deliberately violating a partner’s limits regarding sexual activity. For example, if someone says they are not comfortable with a specific act, but their partner persists or pressures them to engage in it anyway, that’s coercion.

This tactic exploits your discomfort or reluctance to assert your boundaries repeatedly. It can manifest as repeated requests, pushing limits gradually, or dismissing the partner’s objections as insignificant. 

Over time, this wears down the victim’s resistance, making them feel obligated to comply to avoid further conflict or disappointment.

According to an article published on PubMed, “Women with coercive partners who comply with sex are at particular risk for poorer relationship well-being due to the inherent pressure and lack of genuine consent in their sexual interactions​​.”[6]

Exploiting power dynamics

Exploiting power dynamics is a particularly insidious tactic of sexual coercion. Authors Anendri et al. explain in the International Journal of Education, Social Studies, and Management that it allows someone in a position of power to influence or control others’ actions to fit their wicked desires. It is usually a common precursor to sexual violence.[7]

Let’s get one thing straight — just because someone has authority over you, that doesn’t give them a free pass to your body. 

We’re talking bosses who dangle promotions for sexual favors, landlords who slide those creepy “I could lower your rent if . . .” texts, lecturers implying better grades for “extracurricular activities,” and, of course, movie producers who threaten young actresses with professional ruin if they say no.

The victim may feel trapped, fearing negative repercussions if they refuse. So, if you’re feeling pressured or exploited into unwanted sexual activity, know that it’s not your fault. 

You have the right to say no, and your partner or authority figure should respect that. If they don’t, it’s a clear sign of sexual coercion, and you may want to seek help or report the incident.

Minimizing or playing down the situation

You know that friend who’s always cracking jokes about getting too handsy when they’re drunk? Or your ex trying to play it off like “It’s not like we haven’t had sex before, what’s the problem?” 

That’s a classic coercive move to make you doubt yourself.

They’re trying to normalize their bad behavior and frame your discomfort as an overreaction. It’s gaslighting 101 — making you second-guess your gut feeling that something is very wrong. 

This is an extremely common tactic among abusers. According to a 2023 article published in the Journal of Family Violence, “Over 80% of IPV [intimate partner violence] survivors have been called “crazy” by their partners.”[8] 

They call you crazy, shrug it off, laugh it off, anything to get you to agree to sex and shut down those internal warning bells.

Someone who respects you will listen to your words and respect your decision, not try to downplay or discredit it. Don’t let anyone make you feel bad for asserting your needs. Trust your gut.

Threats

Threats are a direct and harmful form of coercion, often used to instill fear and compliance in the victim. For instance, a partner might say, “If you don’t do this, I’ll tell everyone you’re frigid,” or “If you don’t do this, I’m breaking up with you.”
They’re holding your reputation, your relationship, maybe even your safety hostage to get what they want sexually.[9] And it’s a power play, plain and simple — do what I want, or face serious consequences.

It’s psychological warfare designed to take away your sense of security and autonomy.

No one has the right to threaten or blackmail you, especially not for sexual access. If someone pulls this, it’s time to leave the situation. Disengage and get backup, whether that’s friends, authorities, or a counselor. 

Your well-being is the priority, not sparing their feelings or avoiding conflict. Threats are 100% a “get out now” red flag.

Using substances to lower your inhibitions

So you’re at a bar and had a few too many drinks. You’re giggly, dizzy, and feeling like the room is tilting. The last thing on your mind is sexual consent.

Enter the skeezy guy trying to take advantage when you’re tanked. It can be a workmate, friend, or the weird stranger who’s been checking you out from a dingy corner in the bar like Aragorn in the Prancing Pony — but less hot.

Maybe they kept pushing drinks your way or slipped something extra in that Moscow mule without your knowledge. 

This is not only unethical but also illegal, as true consent cannot be given when someone is under the influence. It’s crucial to be aware of this tactic and protect yourself and others from such predatory behavior.

Because make no bones about it — buttering you up with drinks may be a type of sexual coercion, but sex with an intoxicated person who cannot consent is rape. It’s rape.

Substance use coercion can have many negative effects on a victim, including mental issues such as depression and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), and let’s not forget the debilitating effects of drug addiction. It can also be linked to other serious crimes, such as sex trafficking, says the journal of Biomedical Science.[10]

This is why you should always party in a group. Don’t get separated from your friends, take a gal pal to the bathroom with you, and always go home together. 

Sexual Coercion in a Relationship

Sexual coercion is a form of abuse, even within established relationships. It’s a myth that coercion only happens between strangers or casual acquaintances. In reality, it can and does occur within committed partnerships, where trust and intimacy should ideally provide safety and mutual respect.

When one partner uses manipulation, pressure, or threats to obtain sex, it violates the fundamental principles of a healthy relationship. This type of emotional abuse can be particularly damaging because it often goes unrecognized or is rationalized as a normal part of the relationship dynamic.

The Journal of Family Violence confirms that in many cases, perpetrators exploit imbalances of power within the relationship to exert control over their partner.[11] This imbalance can stem from financial control, where one partner holds the purse strings and uses this leverage to coerce sex. 

Emotional dependency is another avenue of exploitation. A manipulative partner might threaten to withdraw affection, support, or even end the relationship if their demands are not met. 

These tactics create a sense of fear and obligation, making the victim feel trapped and powerless to refuse, afraid to say “no.” 

Also, while there may be no bodily harm involved, research from the University of Guelph, Canada, shows that these coercive tactics can have serious consequences on the physical and mental well being of the victim:

  • Soreness
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Pregnancy
  • Anger
  • Self-disgust
  • Sadness
  • Low self-esteem
  • Social anxiety
  • Life disruption
  • Self-blame
  • Intrusive thoughts[12]

Sexual coercion in relationships creates a web of dysfunction. Conway et al. explain,

it appears that women may engage in unwanted sexual activity to avoid a partner’s coercive behavior, or to avoid being emotionally or physically harmed. It is equally important to note, given the social expectations for women in intimate relationships, that women may also engage in unwanted sexual activity in the absence of immediate partner pressure to fulfill social role obligations, with social coercion underlying their reasons for sexual compliance. When women engage in unwanted sexual activity due to social coercion, as a response to past experiences of coercion from their partners, or to avoid negative consequences, the activity should not be defined as willingly consensual.[13]

As you can see, when it comes to unhealthy or toxic relationships, whether past or present, sexual coercion can play many roles. It’s important for both partners to be able to recognize and prevent coercion and acknowledge their rights and responsibilities.

Consent is not a one-time thing, just because you’ve slept together before. It’s an ongoing conversation, and your partner should always be checking in to make sure you’re feeling good about things.

Women should not be made to bear the brunt of consent management.

If you ever feel pressured, manipulated, or outright threatened into sex, that’s a major red flag.

How Does Sexual Coercion Happen?

Coercive people have a whole playbook of boundary-crushing moves that make NFL coaches look like amateurs. It all starts with the slow fade of your comfort zone. They’ll push a little here, a little there, seeing just how far they can go before you throw a flag on the play. 

Nicole Jeffrey from the University of Guelph states that men might continuously ask or try to persuade their partners to engage in sexual activities, even after an initial refusal.[14]

It’s death by a thousand tiny cuts. 

A “harmless” sex joke that makes you cringe. A wandering hand that grazes a bit too close for comfort. 

They’re testing the waters, waiting for you to brush it off so they can dive into the deep end. And once they think they’ve got the green light, it’s full speed ahead with the guilt trips, the “you owe me” rhetoric, the not-so-subtle implications that you’re a tease or a prude if you don’t put out. 

Oswald et al. state that this dynamic is part of a larger pattern where men may use subtle pressures and manipulations before resorting to more explicit forms of coercion.[15]

Suddenly, sex feels like an obligation, not a choice. And certainly not fun.

But perhaps the most insidious trick up their sleeve? 

Gaslighting. 

They’ll twist the narrative so hard you’ll be doubting your own sanity. You’ll hear classics like “You’re overreacting,” “I was just joking,” or the infuriating, “You know you want it.”

The American Sociological Review adds that, “abusers often use strategies such as “flipping the script,” where they transform stories and events to make it seem like the victim is the aggressor. Additionally, they may monitor the victim’s activities, including phone calls and text messages, and isolate them by discrediting their credibility to others.” [16] 

And society’s messy mixed messages about consent and victim blaming only feed into the mind games. We’re bombarded with “hard to get” tropes and “just relax” rhetoric that blur the lines of enthusiastic consent. 

As DeGue et al explains, “Men often justify their coercive behavior by aligning with societal norms that frame male sexual desire as urgent and uncontrollable, and by positioning themselves as entitled to sex within heterosexual relationships. This normalization is supported by cultural scripts that construct men as having higher sex drives and women as gatekeepers of sex​​.”[17]

Is it any wonder victims are left feeling isolated, confused, and utterly powerless?

Is Sexual Coercion Sexual Assault?

Yes! Any sexual contact without consent is assault, and this includes coercion. It’s a violation of your trust and your right to bodily autonomy. Even if there’s no physical violence involved, the emotional and psychological impact can be devastating. 

Research from the Archives of Sexual Behavior points out that victims often experience reactions ranging from moderately upsetting to extremely distressing, which can significantly impact their day-to-day lives and their ability to engage in healthy interpersonal relationships.[18]

Just because there aren’t any bruises doesn’t mean the damage isn’t real. We’re talking shattered self-worth, trust issues, and a metric ton of self-doubt. You start second-guessing every interaction, wondering if you somehow brought this on yourself. 

Newsflash: You didn’t!

Coercion can lead to some serious mental issues down the line. Imagine jumping into a new relationship but constantly waiting for the other shoe to drop. Or feeling your heart race every time you try to get intimate, because your brain’s hitting you with flashbacks of that person who wouldn’t take no for an answer. 

According to De Visser et al., “Women who have been sexually coerced are significantly more likely than other women to experience sexual problems, such as fear of intimacy, lack of sexual pleasure, and anxiety about sexual performance.”[19]

That’s PTSD rearing its ugly head, and it’s just one of the potential long-term consequences of being coerced. It’s like a poison that seeps into every crack of your psyche, slowly eroding your sense of safety and control.

What to Do If You’ve Experienced Sexual Coercion

First things first: If you’re reading this article and realizing, “Oh damn, that’s happening to me!” I need you to hear this loud and clear. IT. IS. NOT. YOUR. FAULT. 

Not even a little bit. 

Not even if you were flirting, or drinking, or wearing that sexy outfit that makes you feel like a total smoke show. Coercion is on the perpetrator, period.

You have every right to feel angry, heartbroken, confused — or all of the above. This is heavy stuff, and processing it alone can feel burdensome. 

But you don’t have to carry this weight solo. Reach out to those ride-or-die friends who always have your back, that family member who’s been your rock through tough times, even a hotline staffed with trained pros ready to listen without an ounce of judgment. 

You need to surround yourself with a support squad who will validate your feelings and remind you how immensely strong you are. 

Now, I know reporting to the authorities can seem scary, especially if your coercer is someone close to you. Only you can make that call. But if you’re seeing a pattern of abusive red flags, or you’re worried about your safety, know that you have options. You can file reports, get restraining orders, tap into victim advocacy programs. 

Under U.S. federal law, coercion can be prosecuted under various statutes related to sexual assault and exploitation. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) provides broad protections and resources for victims of coercion and other forms of sexual violence. 

Coercion can also be prosecuted under various statutes, including the Sexual Abuse Act, which makes it a crime to engage in sexual acts with another person by force, threat, or coercion. [20]

In California, coercion can be prosecuted under the state’s sexual battery law, which makes it a crime to touch the intimate parts of another person against their will for the purpose of sexual arousal, gratification, or abuse.[21] 

In New York, sexual coercion can be prosecuted under the state’s sexual misconduct law, which makes it a crime to engage in sexual intercourse with another person without their consent, including instances where consent is obtained through the use of force, threats, or other forms of coercion.[22]

Whether or not you choose to report, prioritizing your self-care and healing are essential. 

Therapy can provide a safe space to process your emotions and experiences. Engaging in activities that nurture your well-being, such as exercise, meditation, or hobbies, can also support your healing journey. 

Remember, healing takes time, and it’s important to be patient and compassionate with yourself throughout the process.

How to Protect Yourself and Others

You deserve to feel safe and in complete control. Here are some concrete ways to protect yourself and the people you care about:

1. Maintain your boundaries: Don’t be embarrassed to say “no” with confidence, even if it feels awkward at first. Remember, your comfort matters most. Practice saying “That’s not okay with me” or “I’m not interested in that.” Don’t feel obligated to explain yourself or apologize for asserting your boundaries.

2. Trust your gut: We all have that inner voice that whispers when something feels off. Don’t ignore it! If a situation makes you uncomfortable, listen to that internal alarm bell. Maybe it’s a creepy vibe from someone at a party, or a partner pressuring you to participate in sexual acts you’re uncomfortable with. Trust your gut and don’t be afraid to remove yourself from the situation.

3. Bystander intervention, be a friend, be a hero: If you see a friend being pressured or a situation that seems sketchy, intervene in a safe way. Maybe you can casually pull your friend aside or create a distraction. Even something simple like making eye contact with the person being pressured can send a message of support.

4. Educate yourself and your circle: The more we know about sexual coercion, the better equipped we are to prevent it. See the end of this article for a list of resources where you can learn more about healthy relationships, consent, and how to stay safe.

5. Talk to your teens about coercion: You can’t avoid it; your teens are probably having sex or will be soon. According to the CDC, over half of teens have sex before they turn 18.[23] Don’t bury your head in the sand because you’re uncomfortable. Be brave. Talk to them about consent and the different forms sexual assault can take. Create an environment in which they feel comfortable talking to you about sex.

Resources: Seeking Help

If you’ve experienced sexual coercion or any kind of domestic or dating violence, there are people who care and want to help.

Here are some resources to get you started:

  • National Sexual Assault Hotline: 1-800-656-HOPE, or chat online at RAINN
  • Crisis Text Line: Text HOME to 741741 to connect with a crisis counselor
  • Love Is Respect: Love Is Respect, a healthy-relationship resource with information on consent and emotional abuse
  • National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-SAFE, or chat online at the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

And I can’t stress this enough. If you’re ever concerned that you or someone you love is in immediate danger, call 911.

Want to learn more about dating abuse and how to recognize the signs? Check out our detailed page here. It’s essential to stay informed and protect yourself and your loved ones from harmful relationships.

Conclusion

We’ve covered a lot of heavy ground here, and I know it’s overwhelming. But if there’s one thing I want you to take away from this, it’s that sexual coercion is not okay.

In fact, it’s a crime in most places.

By understanding the signs and learning how to protect yourself, you take control of your own narrative. You are not alone. If you’ve experienced sexual coercion, there are people who care and want to help.

Remember, your well-being is important, and there are people and organizations ready to help you through this journey. Stay informed, stay empowered, and take care of yourself.

FAQs

How does sexual coercion happen?

Sexual coercion happens when someone uses pressure, manipulation, or threats to obtain sexual activity from another person against their will. This could include guilt-tripping, persistent pestering, emotional manipulation, or direct threats. It often occurs within relationships or social circles.

What are some examples of coercion?

Some examples of coercion are persistent pressure, manipulation, or threats to make you engage in sexual activity against your will. This can include statements like “If you loved me, you would do this” or “I’ll break up with you if you don’t have sex with me.” Such tactics undermine your consent and autonomy.

Is pressured into sex the same as sexual coercion?

Yes, being pressured into sex is the same as sexual coercion. Coercion involves using pressure, manipulation, or threats to force someone into unwanted sexual activity. This can include persistent pestering, guilt-tripping, emotional manipulation, exploiting power dynamics, and using threats. Consent must be freely given, enthusiastic, and ongoing, and any form of pressure or coercion undermines this.

References

1. Smith, S. G., Zhang, X., Basile, K. C., Merrick, M. T., Wang, J., Kresnow, M. J., & Chen, J. (2018, November). The national intimate partner and sexual violence survey: 2015 data brief–updated release. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/60893/cdc_60893_DS1.pdf

2. Conroy, N. E., Krishnakumar, A., & Leone, J. M. (2015). Reexamining issues of conceptualization and willing consent: The hidden role of coercion in experiences of sexual acquiescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(11), 1828–1846. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514549050

3. Snead A. L., & Babcock, J. C. (2019). Differential predictors of intimate partner sexual coercion versus physical assault perpetration. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 25(2), 146–160. https://doi.org/10.1080%2F13552600.2019.1581282

4. Mou, L. (2022). Understanding men’s use of tactics in sexual coercion: A network analysis [Master’s theses, University of Windsor]. University of Windsor Digital Archive. https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=9930&context=etd

5. Goetz, A. T., & Shackelford, T. K. (2009). Sexual coercion in intimate relationships: A comparative analysis of the effects of women’s infidelity and men’s dominance and control. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 226–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9353-x

6. Katz, J., & Tirone, V. (2010). Going along with it: Sexually coercive partner behavior predicts dating women’s compliance with unwanted sex. Violence Against Women, 16(7), 730–742. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801210374867

7. Meliana, S., Anendri, N. T., Olga, N. C., Efritadewi, A., & Niko, N. (2024). Power relations in sexual violence according to Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology regulation number 30 0f 2021. International Journal of Education, Social Studies, and Management, 4(1), 169–178. https://doi.org/10.52121/ijessm.v4i1.221

8. Hailes, H. P., & Goodman, L. A. (2023). They’re out to take away your sanity: A qualitative investigation of gaslighting in intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-023-00652-1

9. Davis, K. C., Stoner, S. A., Norris, J., George, W. H., & Masters, N. T. (2009). Women’s awareness of and discomfort with sexual assault cues: Effects of alcohol consumption and relationship type. Violence Against Women, 15(9), 1106–1125. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1077801209340759

10. Mathew, S. R., Anil, B. A., & John, J. (2021). Coercion in substance use: A systematic review. Biomedical Science, 4(2), 1045–1049. https://biomedscis.com/pdf/OAJBS.ID.000297.pdf

11. Starratt, V. G., Goetz, A. T., Shackelford, T. K., McKibbin, W. F., & Stewart-Williams, S. (2008). Men’s partner-directed insults and sexual coercion in intimate relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 315–323. http://toddkshackelford.com/downloads/Starratt-et-al-JOFV.pdf

12. Jeffrey, N. K., & Barata, P. C. (2017). “He didn’t necessarily force himself upon me, but . . .”: Women’s lived experiences of sexual coercion in intimate relationships with men. Violence Against Women, 23(8), 911–933. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801216652507

13. Conroy, N. E., Krishnakumar, A., & Leone, J. M. (2015). Reexamining issues of conceptualization and willing consent: The hidden role of coercion in experiences of sexual acquiescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(11), 1828–1846. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514549050

14. Jeffrey, N. (2019). Men’s (normalized) sexual violence against intimate partners (Doctoral dissertation, University of Guelph). University of Guelph Digital Archive. https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/bitstreams/f8401ed8-6cca-4794-9d11-118a602ff394/download

15. Oswald, D. L., & Russell, B. L. (2006). Perceptions of sexual coercion in heterosexual dating relationships: The role of aggressor gender and tactics. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490609552302

16. Stern, E., & Heise, L. (2019). Sexual coercion, consent and negotiation: Processes of change amongst couples participating in the Indashyikirwa programme in Rwanda. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 21(8), 867–882. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2018.1521991

17. DeGue, S., & DiLillo, D. (2004). Understanding perpetrators of nonphysical sexual coercion: Characteristics of those who cross the line. Violence and Victims, 19(6), 673–688. https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.19.6.673.66345

18. Brousseau, M. M., Bergeron, S., Hébert, M., & McDuff, P. (2011). Sexual coercion victimization and perpetration in heterosexual couples: A dyadic investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 363–372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010-9617-0

19. De Visser, R. O., Rissel, C. E., Richters, J., & Smith, A. M. (2007). The impact of sexual coercion on psychological, physical, and sexual well-being in a representative sample of Australian women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 676–686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9129-0

20. Legal Information Institute. (n.d.) 18 U.S.C. § 2242. Cornell Law School. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/2242

21. California Legislative Information. (n.d.) California Penal Code Section 243.4. State of California. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes_displaySection.xhtml?sectionNum=243.4.&lawCode=PEN

22. Legislation. (n.d.) New York Penal Law Section 130.20. New York State Senate. https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/laws/PEN/130.20

23. National Center for Health Statistics. (2017, June 22). Over half of U.S. teens have had sexual intercourse by age 18, new report shows (Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use Among Teenagers in the United States, 2011–2015, National Health Statistics Report No. 104). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2017/201706_NSFG.htm